|Peri-Implantitis over 5 yrs in smoker. ( Source: Wikipedia)|
Peri-implantitis is defined as an inflammatory process affecting the tissues around an osseointegrated implant in function, resulting in loss of supporting bone. Peri-implant mucositis is defined as reversible inflammatory changes of the peri-implant soft tissues in the absence of bone loss. The prevalence of peri-implantitis has been reported to be as low as approximately 10% to as high as 47%; the prevalence of peri-implant mucositis is generally greater, ranging from 32% to 80%.
Periodontal and peri-implant bone turnover is a balanced dynamic process that involves resorption and formation, controlled and influenced by the local production of cytokines, with a wide range of inflammatory, hemopoietic, metabolic and immunomodulatory properties. Peri-implant microbial contamination or infection (bacteria and viruses) elicit an immune response regulated by key cytokines (TNF-a, Interleukin [IL]-1ß, TGF- ß, IL-10) that control the progression and/or suppression of the inflammatory response. Over-production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, released by monocytes / macrophages and T cells in response to a microbial challenge can lead to the breakdown of the periodontal or peri-implant tissues.
The continuous balance that exists between the host immune response and potential subgingival pathogens (bacteria / viruses) determines the clinical condition, not only around teeth, but also around osseointegrated dental implants. On February 21st, at the Nowzari Symposium, peri-implantitis will be discussed by Drs. Tord Berglundh and Hessam Nowzari: www.nowzarisymposium.com